newborn in incubator

Cause of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is caused by brain injury or brain malformation that occurs before, during, or immediately after birth while the infant’s brain is under development. But how a brain injury affects a child’s motor functioning and intellectual abilities is highly dependent on the nature of a brain injury, where the damage occurs, and how severe it is.


What is brain injury, birth injury and brain malformation?

The cause of cerebral palsy is a brain injury or brain malformation that occurs while the brain is developing — before, during, or after birth. As a result of the brain damage during brain development a child’s muscle control, muscle coordination, muscle tone, reflex, posture and balance can be affected. It can also impact a child’s fine motor skills, gross motor skills, and oral motor functioning.

Every case of cerebral palsy is unique to the individual. This is due in part by the type of injury, extent of injury, and the timing of injury to the developing brain. The brain damage that causes cerebral palsy is a result of either:

  • Prenatal disturbance of brain cell migration - genetic and environmental factors disturb brain cell migration as cells move to their appropriate location during brain development.
  • Prenatal poor myelination (insulation) of developing nerve cell fibers – brain function is impeded when poor myelin provides an inadequate protective covering over nerve cells that aid in the transmission.
  • Perinatal brain cell death – events in the birthing process that rupture blood vessels or starve oxygen to the brain.
  • Postnatal non-functional or inappropriate connections (synapses) between brain cells – trauma, infections, and asphyxia that damage connections developed in the brain.

There are four types of brain damage that cause cerebral palsy

The brain damage that causes motor impairment in cerebral palsy results from one of four types of brain injury or brain malformation.




The big question:
“How did this happen to my child?”

When a parent first learns that their child has received a cerebral palsy diagnosis, they question “What caused my child’s cerebral palsy?” Cause can not always be definitively determined in every instance. However, knowing about what caused a child’s condition can be helpful.

A radiologist, neurologist or pediatric radiologist will share the data obtained through MRIs or a CT scan with the child’s pediatrician who has gathered medical history, observations, lab tests, and developmental findings. Together, they will determine the type of brain damage and either diagnose or rule out cerebral palsy. Once brain damage or brain malformation is confirmed the focus quickly turns to the extent and location of impairment. Treatment, therapy and care plans are then made to help a child reach their future potential.

Often buried in the process is the full explanation of the cause. However, there are many benefits to determining the cause.

A family may receive peace of mind, health care practitioners can better treat and prevent the condition, school administrators can qualify a child for early interventions and education supports, and government agencies can provide many needed benefits. Having a formal diagnosis and cause determination assists parents in planning for their child’s future.

And, importantly, parents may question whether anything they did, or failed to do, during pregnancy, delivery or beyond may have contributed to their child’s condition. This is a heavy burden that parents needlessly wear. Knowing the cause of a child’s condition can help lift this burden.

There are family benefits to determining the cause, as well. Parents wishing to conceive more children will be aware of any familial or genetic predispositions that could lead to similar outcomes. They will be better informed on how to prevent or avoid risks that lead to cerebral palsy. And, they will have greater peace of mind during future pregnancies.


CLARIFYING TERMINOLOGY

Cause

Brain development begins shortly after conception. A relatively small number of cells divide and multiply into billions of cells. A small strip of tissue rolls into a neural tube. One end develops into the brain, the other into the spinal cord. Throughout, different types of cells form, group, and migrate to form various regions of the brain. The brain is considered fully developed two to five years after birth.

Brain defects are irregularities in the brain structure that typically cause impairment. Defects can occur from malformation, injury, or disease. The degree of impairment often is linked to the severity of damage. A brain sometimes compensates for defects, in essence, by “rewiring” to bypass or compensate for damaged areas. For this reason, beginning treatment as early as possible is typically recommended.

Brain malformations are defects that occur through abnormal development of the brain. Although defects can occur anytime during fetal development, the first 20 weeks are most vulnerable; any malformation that occurs while the neural tube is forming can have permanent consequences. Brain malformations may result in undeveloped areas, abnormal growth, or improper brain division into hemispheres and lobes.

Brain lesions are defects that occur from injury or disease. Causes during fetal development can include bleeding in the brain, infections, toxins, asphyxia, and many others. Lesions typically result from an incident or event that causes brain tissue death. Holes, which often fill with liquid, are left behind to form cysts.


RESOURCES

Cause

For more information on the cause of cerebral palsy, MyChild recommends the following websites:




img_1

Was your child recently diagnosed with cerebral palsy?


This kit can help!
Kit No. 200WO –
The Cerebral Palsy Starter Kit


Call

to order!

MORE


MyChild™

Contact us today!


Stories of Inspiration

proud dad holding and kissing baby

Gain Perspective

There’s an old saying that we see things not as they are, but as we are. Here’s how to develop some safeguards when situations threaten to taint our outlook, here’s how each of us can brighten our point of view.
Gain Perspective »

Information

Mother and daughters in park with dog smiling

Do you know what type or form of cerebral palsy your child has?

Several cerebral palsy classification systems exist today to define the type and form of cerebral palsy an individual has. The classification is complicated by the wide range of clinical presentations and degrees of activity limitation that exist. Knowing the severity, location and type of cerebral palsy your child has will help to coordinate care and fund treatment.
Types and Forms of Cerebral Palsy »

Stories of Inspiration

Mommy leaving for work while sitter and baby wave

Accept Help

It’s true that part of being an effective parent is the ability to keep many balls in the air at once. Another part of effective parenting that’s equally important to understand is when to seek assistance. It can be a hard step to take, but it’s one that’s necessary for families whose resources are not entirely meeting their needs. Whether its help with everyday activities or financial assistance from the government, there are sources that can help lighten the load.
Accept Help »

twitter @TheCPorg
MyChild, the ultimate resource for everything cerebral palsy, provides families touched by cerebral palsy with the help they need and the benefits they deserve.
  • Firefly Upsee Helps Children With Cerebral Palsy Walk

    A harness called Firefly Upsee is helping children with cerebral palsy walk. The Upsee was invented by a mother whose son has cerebral palsy.The Upsee from Firefly i...

  • Eye Tracking Technology Helps 3-Year-Old Express Herself

    Early this month in the UK, Madeline Love had the opportunity to see her 3-year-old daughter, who has cerebral palsy, express herself through art thanks to innovative eye tracking technology called Eyegaze.Berry Love-Jones endured ma...

  • Halloween Wheelchair Costumes For Kids

    Building a costume that incorporates a child’s wheelchair is a fun and clever way to ensure inclusion and acceptance. Halloween is the perfect opportunity for families to get creative with a child and his or her wheelchair.In an i...

  • Student With Cerebral Palsy Crowned Homecoming Queen

    On October 16th, Ontario High School crowned Melissa Andrade its 2014 Homecoming Queen, making her the first student with special needs in the history of the school to ever win the crown. Andrade, has cerebral palsy, and a smile of positivity that's deter...

  • Halloween Activities For Sensory Play

    Sensory play can go a long way towards encouraging development for children with cerebral palsy.Engaging in sensory or tactile activities provides a fun way to exercise motor functions and coordination, while nurturing cognitive develop...