pregnant mother laying on the ground

Blood Type Incompatibility or Jaundice

A-B-0 and Rh incompatibility happens when a mother’s blood type conflicts with that of her newborn child. Blood type incompatibility can be prevented, learn how.


What is blood type incompatibility? Jaundice?

Blood types are categorized by A, B, and O, and given an Rh factor of positive or negative. A-B-0 and Rh incompatibility happens when a mother’s blood type conflicts with that of her newborn child. It is possible for a mother’s red blood cells to cross into the placenta or fetus during pregnancy. When this occurs, the mother’s blood cells develop antibodies that can attack the newborn’s blood cells and cause jaundice. The risk of this is highest near or during delivery.

A-B-O incompatibility occurs when:

  • the mother is type O and the baby is B, A, or AB
  • the mother is type A and their baby is B or AB
  • the mother is type B and their baby is A or AB

Rh incompatibility occurs when a mother has Rh-negative blood and the baby has Rh-positive blood. The mother’s body will produce an auto-immune response that attacks the fetus or newborn’s blood cells as if they were a bacterial or viral invader. This immune response is fairly slow to develop and is rarely a serious issue in first pregnancies. However, subsequent pregnancies with an Rh incompatibility are a significantly higher risk.

Blood type incompatibility can be prevented with a blood test early in pregnancy. If an Rh incompatibility is found, an Rh-immune globulin treatment is administered about 28 weeks into the pregnancy. If the incompatibility is not detected, the newborn can develop severe jaundice leading to brain damage. While it can have serious consequences, jaundice in newborns is common and treatable; medical attention is necessary at the first sign of yellowish discoloration in the skin or eyes.

Rh and ABO incompatibility in the infant results in jaundice, which is treated through hydration and phototherapy. Biliblankets and other phototherapy equipment help the infant’s body expel bilirubin, the cause of jaundice.


Risk Factors

Cerebral Palsy
Risk Factors

Were you or your child at risk – before, during or after your child’s birth?

Cerebral palsy risk factors are events, substances or circumstances that increase the chances of a child developing cerebral palsy. They can be avoidable, or unavoidable. A risk factor does not ensure a child will develop cerebral palsy; it means chances are higher than if that risk factor was not present. Likewise, the absence of risk factors does not ensure that a child will not develop cerebral palsy. Have you been exposed to the following risk factors?
Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors »

Types of risk factors:


Risk factors vs. risk factor causal pathways

A risk factor does not ensure a child will develop cerebral palsy; it means chances are higher than if that risk factor was not present. Likewise, the absence of risk factors does not ensure that a child will not develop cerebral palsy.
Risk Factors and Risk Factor Causal Pathways »


The Cerebral Palsy Risk Factor Checklist

Any exposure to risk factors prior to conception and during pregnancy should be immediately discussed with a doctor in order to treat and minimize risk. The Cerebral Palsy Risk Factor Checklist helps parents determine if they may have been exposed to risk factors for cerebral palsy.
The Cerebral Palsy Risk Factor Checklist »



  • an adorable baby looking up at the doctor in a humorous inquisitive manner

    Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy

    Reaching the expected developmental benchmarks of infancy and childhood – sitting, rolling over, crawling, standing and walking – are a matter of great joy for parents, but what if a child’s developmental timetable seems delayed? There are many tell-tale signs that a child may have cerebral palsy, but those factors can be indicative of many other conditions. Signs and symptoms can vary from one individual to the next. Many signs and symptoms are not readily visible at birth, except in severe cases.
    Learn more »

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    Diagnosis of and tests for cerebral palsy

    Parents are often disheartened to learn that there is no singular test that will accurately diagnose a child with cerebral palsy. Once a parent initiates the round of medical tests that will need to be performed before a diagnosis can be made, they should be prepared for a long and sometimes frustrating process that will, in time, provide parents with answers about their child’s outlook.
    Learn more »

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    Cause of cerebral palsy

    Cerebral palsy is caused by one of four forms of brain injury or brain malformation that occurs before, during, or immediately after birth while the brain is under development. But how a brain injury affects a child’s gross and fine motor functioning, balance, muscle tone and intellectual abilities, for example, is highly dependent on the nature of the brain injury, where the damage occurs, and how severe it is.
    Learn more »

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Were you exposed to risk factors that could lead to the development of cerebral palsy? Unsure?


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Preventing Cerebral Palsy

mother holding her pregnant belly

How to prevent cerebral palsy

When a child is born with cerebral palsy, the reasons are too often because of preventable events that occur prior to birth, during the delivery process, or immediately after birth. Many work diligently towards preventing cerebral palsy by identifying risks, developing prevention measures, and implementing educational campaigns.
Prevention »

The CP Journey

baby's hand holding parent's finger

Awaiting diagnosis

A parent may be concerned about developmental delays or a doctor may observe a sign outside of growth norms. There is no definitive test for cerebral palsy, causing doctors to diagnose over time. For parents that suspect a child may have cerebral palsy, the long wait between that initial suspicion and an official diagnosis can be an emotional one. But, what is often a time of anxiety evolves into an empowering experience that leads to acceptance and unconditional love.
Awaiting Diagnosis »

Inspiration

Nate working hard at his intensive suit therapy session

Intensive suit therapy helps boy improve stability

Nate's story

When Jennifer Scheuer and her husband David learned that their son Nate has cerebral palsy, the young couple vowed that they would pursue any treatment or therapy that would help give their second-born son a shot at improved mobility. Nate, a 4-year-old from Long Island, undergoes suit therapy to improve his mobility and his confidence.
Nate's Story »

Early Diagnosis

child being examined by a health care professional

American Academy of Pediatrics issues clinical report urging early diagnosis of cerebral palsy

For decades, physicians have been overly cautious in diagnosing cerebral palsy and other motor delays. But recently, the American Academy of Pediatrics stressed the importance of early diagnosis in a clinical report.
AAP Urges Doctors for Early Diagnosis »

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